中考英语语法专项复习冠词[X00196]

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中考英语语法专项复习冠词[X00196]

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中考英语语法专项复习 冠词

 

中考考纲中主要考查冠词的基本用法、零冠词的情况、习惯用语中冠词的位置及使用。卷面中冠词所占分值约为 3-7分左右,一般分布在单选、完形填空、短文填空及写作中。近几年中考对冠词的考查重点是不定冠词aan的区别,定冠词及零冠词。对冠词的习惯用法的考查是主要考点之一,所以对此类用法一定要熟记在心。另外在学习中,应充分重视对最基本的冠词知识的理解、掌握,同时注意冠词活用的问题。做题时要弄清句子中的单数名词、复数名词或不可数名词及泛指、特指等概念。预计2018年命题趋势仍可能是定冠词与不定冠词的区别和冠词的习惯用法。冠词是一种虚词,不能在句子中作独立成分,要用在名词的前面,帮助说明名词所指的人或事物。它不能离开名词而单独存在,因此,可以说冠词就是名词的一种标志。在英语中,冠词分为不定冠词(aan)和定冠词(the)两种:不定冠词一般用于单数名词前,表示泛指;定冠词既可修饰可数名词(单复数均可),又可修饰不可数名词,表示特指。

                             

一、冠词的分类

思维导图记知识点

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

英语中冠词有不定冠词a / an定冠词the两种,常放在名词的前面,用来限定名词的意义,起泛指或特指的作用。21教育名师原创作品

冠词

分类

用法

举例说明

不定冠词

a

用在辅音开头的单数名词前面

a dog

an

用在元音开头的单数名词的前面

an orange

定冠词

the

在可数名词的单数或复数或不可数的名词前面

the apple/the apples

二、不定冠词a / an的用法

思维导图记知识点

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

不定冠词a / an用在单数名词的前面,a用在辅音开头的词前面; an用在元音开头的词的前面。

表示某一个人或东西,但不具体说明何人或何物。

如:There is a dog lying on the ground.(有一只狗躺在地上。)

表示某类人或事物,以区别于其他种类。

如:A elephant is much stronger than a man.(大象比人强壮多了。)(不能译为:一头大象比一个人强壮。)21教育网

表示某类人或事物中的任何一个。

如:He is a teacher of English.(他是英语教师。)

表示这个数量。

如:There is a table and four chairs in that dining-room.(在那个餐厅里有一张桌子和四把椅子。)21·com

几个用不定冠词的习语:a bit(一点), a little(一点), a few(几个), a lot (许多), a kind of(一种), a pair of(一副、一双), a number of(大量的), a piece of (一张、一片), half an hour(半小时), have a good time(玩得开心), have a cold(感冒), make a noise(发出嘈杂声)等等。

三、定冠词the的用法

思维导图记知识点

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

定冠词the用在可数名词的单数或复数或不可数的名词前面。

1、定冠词的基本用法:

(1) 表示特指的人或事物。

如:The man with a flower in his hand is Jack..(手上拿着一朵花的男人是杰克)

(2) 指谈话双方都熟悉的人或事物。

如:Look at the blackboard,Lily.(莉莉,请看黑板。)

(3) 复述前面提到过的人或事物。

如:There is a man under the tree. The man is called Robert.(树下有个人,  那个人叫罗伯特。)21cnjy.com

(4) 表示世界上独一无二的事物。

如:The earth turns around the sun.(地球绕太阳旋转。)

(5) 用在表示方位的名词前面。

如:There will be strong wind to the south of the Yangtze River.(长江以南地  区将会刮大风。)2-1-c-n-j-y

(6) 在序数词和形容词最高级的前面。

如:Who is the first one to go?(谁第一个去?)

 Of all the stars, the sun is the nearest to the earth.(在所有的恒星之中太阳离地球最近)

(7) 常用在乐器名称的前面。

如:He began to play the violin at the age of 5.(五岁时他开始拉小提琴)

(8) 用在江河、海洋、山脉等名称的前面。

如:I have never been to the Himalaya Mountains.(我从没有去过喜马拉雅山)

(9) 用在含有普通名词的专有名词的前面。

如:He is from the United States of America.(他来自美利坚合众国)【来源:21cnj*y.co*m

(10)用在姓氏之前表示一家人。

如:The Greens are going to Mount Emei next month.(下个月格林家要去峨眉山)

(11)same之前一般用the

如:Lucy and Lily look the same.(露西和莉莉看上去长得一样)

(12)几个用定冠词的习语:at the same time (与此同时),make the bed(铺床),in the end(最后),all the time(一直),by the way(顺便说一下),on the way(在路上)等等。 【出处:21教育名师】

2、一些不用冠词的情况:

(1) 专有名词和(第一次使用)一些不可数名词时前面通常不用。

如:China is a very large country.(中国是个大国)

 Man needs air and water.(人类需要空气和水)

(2) 名词前已有指示、物主或不定代词作定语时不用。

如:My pen is much more expensive than yours.(我的钢笔比你的昂贵多了)

(3) 周名,月名或季节名前一般不用。

如:He was born on Monday, February 18,1995.

 They usually plant trees on the hills in spring.(春天他们通常在山上植树)

(4)  (第一次使用)复数名词表示人或事物的类别时不用。

如:Men are cleverer than monkeys.(人比猴子聪明)

(5) 三餐饭前不用。

如:We have breakfast at home and lunch at school.(我们在家吃早饭,在校吃午饭)

(6) 节、假日前一般不用。

如:On Children’s Day the boys often get presents from their parents.(在儿童节,这些男孩经常得到父母的礼物)-om

(7) 球类名词前不用。

如:The children play football on Saturday afternoons.(孩子们星期六下午踢足球)

(8) 城市的重要/主要建筑物名称前不用。

如:They are now at People’s Cinema.(他们此刻在人民电影院)

(9)    一些习惯用语中不用。

如:(1)at / to / from / out of / after / for school; (2) in / to / for / after class; in / to / out of / into bed; after / at/ from / out of / to work;  at / to sea; in / from / down / to town; at / from home; at / for / to breakfast/lunch/supper; at night/noon/midnight; on foot; go to school/bed; on top of; in front of; on show/display/duty/watch; in / out of hospital;at all; on/in time; at first/last/once; in Chinese/English,etc.; take care of

考点一:不定冠词a / an的用法

 典例12017年山东青岛】Look! There is bottle on the table. 
A.a     B. an    C. the      D. / 

【解析】句意:看!在桌子上有一个瓶子。there be句型表示某地存在某物,所以当物体是可数名词单数时经常加冠词a/an表示类别。根据bottle以辅音音素开头,所以用不定冠词a,故选A 21·世纪*教育网

【答案】A   

举一反三

  12016•石)-What did you do last nightBob
-First I did my hom eworkand then I played ______ piano for half ______ hour.(  )
Athea B/an Cthean Dathe

  2、(2016广东)-Have you seen ______ film Where Are We GoingDad
-YesIt’s ______ interesting film
Aa the Bthe an Ca an

  3.2017•绵阳-Marywho’s ____ man over there
-He is my uncle____ English teacher

Athethe Banthe Cthean Daan

考点二:定冠词the的用法

典例2、(2017•沈阳)This is _________ book I told you about yesterday

Aa  Bthe  Can  D/
【解析】句意:这就是我昨天给你说的那本书.“aan”一般是泛指一个人或事物,“the”的一个用法是特指某个人或事物.根据I told you about yesterday做定语修饰book可知特指我昨天给你说的那本书,故用定冠词the,故选B

【答案】B

举一反三

  1-Who is ______ little boy in the photo-OhIt's me!I was six that year
Aan Bthe Ca
  2________old man standing under the tree is _______university teacher
AAnan BAthe CThea DThean
  3I want to see Tiny Times________ second time because it is quite_______ wonderful movie
Athe a Ba a Cthe/ Da/

考点三:零冠词的用法

 典例1    man in a black hat is my PE teacherHe often plays         football with us
AA the BThe a CThe/ DA/
【解析】句意:那个戴黑色帽子的男子是我的体育老师.他经常和我们踢足球.根据句中信息可知,名词man被介词短语in a black hat限定,所以在其前面该加定冠词the.在动词play后跟表示球类运动的名词时通常不要任何冠词.故选C
【答案】B

举一反三

  1(2016桂林)David plays football but he doesn't play piano (  )

A.the B.the C.athe

  2.2017山东泰安】 –Do you know ______ girl with long curly hair?

--Yes, she is Mary. She plays ______ tennis very well.

A. a, /      B. the, /     C. the, the        D. a, the

单项选择

1. (2017·新疆乌鲁木齐· 21)He is ___honest boy. I want to become ______ person like him.

A.  aa  B.  ana  C.  thea  D.  anthe

2. (2017·新疆建设兵团· 26)—Do you know ________ girl over there?

—Yesshe likes playing ________ basketball a lot.

A the/  B.  athe C.  a/  D.  thea

3. (2017·内蒙古呼和浩特·1)Last summermy parents took me to the zoo. In the zoo we saw ________ elephant. ________ elephant was from Africa.

A.  aThe  B.  theAn C.  anThe  D.  theA

4. (2017·贵州黔南州·21)—Is Tony ________ honest boy?

—Yes. I think he is ________ most helpful boy in our class.

A.  athe  B.  anan C.  anthe  D.  thean

5. (2017·肃天水· 26)—Do you know how to spell _____ word “napkin”(纸巾) in English?

—Yes. It begins with ________ “n”

A.  thea  B.  thean C.  aan  D.  thethe

6. (2017·四川达州· 21)—Do you like ________ movie Dangal?

—Yes. It's________ educational movie. I like it very much.21*om

7. (2017·四川成都· 31)I want to be ________ engineer when I grow up.

A.  a  B.  an C.  the

8. (2017·甘肃白银、武威·6)________ moon is very bright at night.

A.  A  B.  An  C.  The  D.  /

9. (2017·山东滨州·21)—Kateare you ________ only child in your family?

—Yesbut ________ new baby is on the way.

A.  thea  B.  anthe  C.  athe  D.  thethe

10. (2017·山东东营·16)—In Londondogs and their owners can enjoy ____ hour­long free bus tour.

—Wow! I hope we can also have such service in Dongying.

A.  a  B.  an  C.  the  D.  /

11. (2017·山东临沂·16)This afternoon my grandfather bought a magazine and a newspaper. The magazine is in his bag. But he can't remember where he put ________ newspaper.

12. (2017·山东青岛· 1)Look! There is ________ bottle on the table.

A.  a  B.  an  C.  the  D.  /

13. (2017·山东泰安· 21)—Do you know ________ girl with long curly hair?

—Yesshe is Mary. She plays ________ tennis very well.

A.  a/  B.  the/ C.  thethe  D.  athe

14. (201湖北十堰·26)I usually have _____ breakfast at home. I think it's good for my health.教育网版权所有

A.  a  B.  an  C.  the  D.  /

15. (2017·四川眉山· 21)—Can I help youMadam?

—I want ________ interesting book as ________ useful gift for my son.

A.  ana  B.  anthe C.  aan  D.  aa

16. (2017· 重庆A·21)There is ________ tall man in front of the zoo gate.

A.  a  B.  an  C.  the  D. /

17. (2017· 福建· 21)Jackie is such _____ friendly boy. He gets along well with his classmates.

A.  a  B.  an  C.  the

18. (2017·河南·21)—When will ________ car race begin?

—I'm not sure. Maybe next weekor maybe ________ week after next.

A.  athe  B.  anthe C.  thea  D.  thethe

19. (2017·黑龙江齐齐哈尔·2)I have_____ useful book. It is about how to play________ basketball.

A.  an/  B.  a/ C.  anthe

20. (201重庆B·21)The boys often play________ basketball after school.

A. /  B.  a  C.  an  D.  the

Key:1-5:BACCB 6-10:ABCAB 11-15:CABDA 16-20:AADBA

1. (2017·苏南通模拟· 1)Jack is ________ eight­year­old boy and he goes to school on________ foot every day.

A.  anthe  B.  a;不填C.  an;不填  D.  athe

2. (2017·浙江温州模拟· 1)—This photo makes me think of ______ trip to the Great Wall last year.【版权所有:】

—Yeahwe had a great time there.

A.  a  B.  an C.  the  D.  /

3. (2017·天津模拟· 21)Shenzhen is on ________ coast near Hong Kong. It was ________ small village many years ago.

A.  athe  .  thea  C.  不填;不填  D.  thethe

4. (2017·江苏连云港模· 1)Donald Trump________ 71­year­old businessmanwas chosen________ President of the US last year.

A.  aa  B.  a/  C.  thea  D.  thethe

5. (201江苏泰州模拟· 1)Dangal(《摔跤吧!爸爸》)________ Indian filmhas become one of ________ most popular films in China.

A.  a/  B.  athe  C.  anthe  D.  /the

6. (2017·江苏宿迁模拟·1)Every evening my daughter plays ________ piano for an hour.

A.  the  B.  a  C.  /  D.  an

7. (2017·江苏扬州模拟· 1)They stopped in ________ beautiful place for campingnear ________ farmhouse of the Smiths.【来源:21·世纪·教育·网】

A.  aa  B.  thea  C.  athe  D.  thethe

8. (201湖北黄石模拟·26)On ____ Children's DayJack received a prize for being ___ honest boy.

A.  thean  B.  /an  C.  /a  D.  thean

9. (2017·江苏镇江模·1)May 10,2017 was marked as ________ first Chinese Brands Day(中国品牌日). “Made in China” has come of age.

A.  a  B.  an C.  the  D.  不填

10. (2017·江苏淮安模· 1)—There is ________ egg on the table. Would you like to have it?

—Nothanks.

A. /  B.  an  C.  a  D.  the

11. (2017·湖北黄冈模拟·26)—HeyLi Ming. Do you have________ basketball?

—Yesit's over therebehind ________door.

A.  aa  B.  thethe  C.  athe  D.  thea

12. (201上海模拟·27)Christine is selling her housebut on ___ other hand she doesn't want to move.www-2-1-cnjy-com

A.  a  B.  an  C.  the  D.  /

13. (2017·山东潍坊模拟· 21)—What do you think of the boy?

—He is ________ honest student today and________ useful man tomorrow.

A.  aan  B.  ana  C.  anan  D.  aa

14. (2017·湖北随州模拟· 26)Lang Lang is ____ famous pianist. He plays ________ piano very well.

A.  athe  B.  thethe  C.  the/  D.  a/

15. (201广东模拟·26)I went to ________ supermarket to buy ________ birthday gift for my aunt yesterday.

A.  ana  B.  aa  C.  the/  D.  /the

Key:1-5:BCBBC 6-10:ACBCB 11-15:CCBAB

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